This is a set of hybridized orbitals based on BlendLabor's orbital shape. The set includes the basic sp hybridized orbital, sp, sp2, and sp3 models. Unhybridized p orbitals are also included that can be connected to the sp and sp2 models to show pi-bond orbital overlaps.
***This is a work in progress so the bond angles for the sp3 model are still a little bit off.
I recommend using hot glue to attach the unhybridized orbitals to the models.
Molecules have three-dimensional shapes that are important to their function, especially in biological systems. This model helps students do visualize these shapes and the reasons that they form based on hybridization and VSEPR theory.
Students will understand how orbitals combine when covalent bonds are formed.
Students will be able to describe how the orbital shapes relate to VSEPR theory.
Students will be able to describe the difference between pi and sigma bonds based on orbital overlap.
Students will be able to relate orbital arrangement to molecular shape.
Students should already be familiar with atomic orbitals as well as valence shell electron repulsions (VSEPR) theory. They should also be familiar with single, double, and triple covalent bonds.
Describe how s and p orbitals combine in order to form covalent bonds which repel to be as far apart as possible. These are known as hybrid orbitals.
This set can be combined with the atomic orbital set.
Draw a molecule that is tetrahedral and discuss how it needs for orbitals pointing in the correct directions to form. Show the relative positions of the s and p orbitals using the atomic orbital set first, then show how these 4 orbitals combine into four of the hybrid orbitals in this set. Show that the farthest these four orbitals can get from each other are 109.5° as shown in the sp3 model.
Next, draw a trigonal planar carbon molecule on the board with one double bond. Discuss how only three orbitals are needed so only 1 s orbital and 2 p orbitals combine to form three hybrid orbitals and the sp2 shape. Point out that there is a leftover p orbital. Use the provided unhybridized p orbitals to show how these stick out from the shape. Use a second sp2 model with attactched p orbitals to discuss how the double bond forms. This can then be used to differentiate sigma and pi bonds. More advanced classes can use these models to discuss bond rotation.
Draw a linear carbon molecule with a triple bond and a single bond. Repeat the procedure above noting that two p orbitals are left over. Use the sp model and unhybridized p orbitals to demonstrate the formation of two pi bonds with this geometry.